Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. It enables various groups of people working in the organization to work harmoniously to achieve the goals. Therefore, a manager must select the right number of executives in various positions with the right type of education and training so that they may willingly co-operate and co-ordinate. They are more interested in developing their own departments. PreserveArticles.com is a free service that lets you to preserve your original articles for eternity. Co-ordination is the process of synchronising activities of various persons in the organisation in order to achieve goals. Co-ordination is a continuous process and it is done at all levels of management. Co-ordination may be defined as an ongoing process whereby a manager develops in integrated, orderly and synchronised pattern of group effort among his sub-ordinates and tries to attain unity of effort in the pursuit of a common purpose. Further, the need for co-ordination arises because of conflict between line and staff. Establishment of specific rules and procedures as regards different activities and the people perform­ing them, is by far the simplest method of coordination. Effective coordination techniques includes Direct Contact, Group Meetings, Organizational structure, Committees, staff meeting, Leadership, communication etc. The absence of this will create improper condition and atmosphere in which it would be difficult for any person to stay for long in the organisation. (4) It’s success largely depends on unity of action. So, there is a need for coordination between the supervisors and the top executives. Cooperation is an effort that arises out of informal relations. Activities follow a specific direction. In an organization, the efficient coordination of internal and external components help in reducing the complexities (both internal and external). Project coordination is a project management method of assigning a person or a team to ensure that all aspects of the project are are completed in a timely manner, that snags are fixed and problems solved, and the project is finished on time and on budget. Here, external environment consists of outside parties who are interested about the affairs of the organization (such as Government, customers, investors, suppliers, competitors, etc.). Further, they encourage the subordinates to express their ideas, view-points etc. 3. Coordination and Organization Definitions, Examples and Future Research Directions Guido Boella 1 Universita`diTorino Italy Leendert van der Torre 2 University of Luxembourg Luxembourg Abstract Coordination languages and models like Linda and Reo have been developed in computer science to coordinate the interaction among components and objects, and are nowadays used to … Brech. (iv) Subordinates get opportunity to share information which they possess and is relevant for the unit as well as organization as a whole. 2. For example, when A works with B and he, in turn, works with C and D, each of the four, find themselves influenced by others that is influenced by all the people in the total situation. Thoughtful and proper design of managerial functions is the key to successful co-ordination. It means keeping buffer stock of resources. In a big organization, a large number of people process the work at various levels. Well-defined work procedures – When the work procedures are well-defined and adhered to properly, these help to achieve co­ordination easily. All activities should be performed within the framework of policies, procedures etc. Coordination Coordination may be defined as the process of managing dependencies between activities (Malone & Crowston, 1994). are duly welded into one united and integrated whole aimed at working to achieve common goals. The individuals in the organization must be willing to help each other voluntarily. Thus, they enable the coordination effective. Prof. Dr. Hendrik Jürges Questionnaire Coordinator . Committee ensures that problems which arise out of relationships among various units can be solved by group decisions. It is accomplished by means of planning, organising, actuating and controlling.”, Ordway Tead has said – “Co-ordination is the effort to ensure a smooth interplay of the functions and forces of all different component parts of an organisation to the end that its purpose will be realised with a minimum of friction and a maximum of collaborative effectiveness.”. It is because of co-ordinating activities of the manager the enterprise moves ahead towards its goal. Group Meetings – The managers and other officials meet to discuss common problems of organisation and the top management will provide solutions for smooth working. Precise and Comprehensive Programmes and Policies, 6. Therefore, every manager should try to achieve both simultaneously. In organisations where simple and routine activities are performed, rules and procedures provide established standards of performance. Thus committees solve many managerial problems and serve as a sound technique of co-ordination. He accordingly takes his decisions. It is the responsibility of a manager to coor­dinate the activities of all the departments of the organization for achieving the predetermined objectives. Personal contacts should be encouraged as it is the most effective means of communication for achieving coordination. Co-ordination is an orderly arrangement of efforts to provide unity of action in the fulfillment of common objective whereas co-operation denotes collective efforts of persons working in an enterprise voluntarily for the achievement of a particular purpose. Co-ordination can easily be achieved if managerial functions are properly designed and executed. Maintaining slack resources, thus, facilitates coordination amongst different departments and units. Unless he does it, his plans may not be realised. Internal Coordination: Vertical and horizontal types of coordination, if carried out within an organization, are called internal coordination. (3) Co-Ordinating activities must respond to time, policies, programmes and objectives. Effective leadership ensures co-ordination both at the planning and the implementing stages. There are differences of opinion and values, conflicts of priorities and of goals. Co-ordination is essential when diversified tasks are undertaken by some persons, co-ordination starts as soon as the operations begin. Their problems difficulties, management’s expectation from them, solving their problems, exchanging various ideas, opinions, points of view, problems, and solutions are effectively discussed and resolved in such meetings. They normally work in staff capacity to facilitate the working of line managers. It is an orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common objectives. Planning of Goals and Objectives 12. Clearly Defined Goals – The goals of the enterprise should be laid down clearly. – Alan C. Reiley and James D. Mooney. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility: There is a line of authority in every enterprise which indicates as to who is accountable to whom. Departmentation facilitates co-ordination in a better way than other techniques. The channels of the communication used in the enterprise should be reliable so that they are able to create proper understanding in the minds of receivers. The essence of giving orders, instructions, coaching and teaching sub-ordinates means to co-ordinate their activities in such a manner that the overall enterprise objective will be achieved in the most efficient way. The case presented is an example of process improvement use for successful delay management. A specialist may follow his own line and may not appreciate the point of view of others. It is something which comes about as the manager performs his managerial functions efficiently and effectively. It involves synchronization of different actions, so that planned objectives can be achieved with the minimum of conflict. Many activities are performed in a business. In short, it improves human relations. 1. Coordination Activities . Communication without distortions, gaps etc. Co-operation, on the other hand denotes the collective efforts by the persons working in the enterprise voluntarily for accomplishing a particular purpose. Through co-ordination duplication of work and work at cross purposes can be eliminated. But modern thinking does not conform with the thinking of Koontz and O’Donnell. Managing Director . The individual member must know what is expected of him by his superior. Coordination serves as a key to all managerial functions. In case it does not do so, it will have to wait to produce to meet the increased demand. For example, top level managers coordinate the activities of their subordinates to ensure that the overall policies of an organisation are duly implemented. Coordination is impossible without cooperation. Every individual and each department must understand the overall objectives and what is expected of them by the organization. To conclude, a manager plays an important role as a co-ordinator. Cooperation – Coordination must be accompanied by cooperation. These roles typically include coordination and facilitation of care, utilization management, discharge planning, denial management, avoidable day management, and some aspects of quality management. Everything you need to know about techniques of coordination in management. The basic responsibility of the cell is to collect the relevant information and to send this to various heads of departments or sections so that inter-departmental work and relationship are coordinated. “Co-ordination is the orderly arrangement of group effort, to provide unit of action in the pursuit of common purpose”. However, role of chain of command in achieving vertical coordination is limited. (5) It should be based on personal contact, Mumbai co-operation, mutual confidence, good human relations and above all on the continuity principles. Controlling is not an independent work. Clear Lines of Authority and Responsibility 5. For holding staff meeting, ‘management by walking around’ method of staff meeting may also be adopted. The manager can also clearly define the work of his subordinates, their role, function, and timing of performing the work, in order to achieve co-ordination. Similarly, harmony and sweet voice in music cannot be achieved by the orchestra party unless an orchestra conductor co-ordinates the activities of the group members. Incentives – This is a positive control measure and co-ordination process by which the incentives are given as and when the achievements happen. Our mission is to liberate knowledge. 26 examples: The major weak point is the lack of coordination over the enormous number of… The conflict between line and staff personnel can also be avoided through proper co­ordination. Horizontal coordination is achieved through mutual consultations and cooperation. Continuous supervision of work through co-ordination itself is a strong control measure. Horizontal coordination between various departments is essential for synchronization of diverse activities of an organization. viii. General Techniques 2. Defective communication system may result in ineffective co-ordination. Members of different departments openly discuss the departmental problems and through mutual discussions, develop solutions acceptable to all. Hierarchy – One boss will co-ordinate the activities down the line as a measure of control. The purpose of coordination is to synchronize the functions of various sections for achieving organizational goals with minimum effort. The need for co-ordination emerges and arises as the operations begin to be multiple or complex by reason of the fact that more than one person is concerned with them. Written objectives and management philosophy, v. Programme instructions, work packages, work orders. Prof. Dr. Guglielmo Weber Deputy Managing Director . Coordination theory provides an approach to the study of processes. Generally organizations are groups of interdependent departments. Uploader Agreement. All the departmental activities are to be linked together in order to ensure the smooth and successful functioning of an organization. This facilitates substantive co-ordination. All this leads to harmony and unity in working. General organisational meetings and information meetings, i. Disclaimer 8. 6. This will naturally create stress situations for him. Group Meetings – The managers and other officials meet to discuss common problems of organisation and the top management will provide solutions for smooth working. Ideally co-ordination spreads throughout all managerial activities. The organisation cannot be said to be efficient unless it attempts to achieve co-ordination by creating a sound organisation structure. Coordination maintains balance amongst individual, departmental and organisational goals. Control function has to be coordinated with the planning function in order to ensure that the plans are achieved. Prohibited Content 3. Thus, it is the responsibility of all the managers that they make efforts to establish coordination. Coordinating function of the management has two forms of coordination namely (i) vertical coordination and horizontal coordination. This, of course, requires effective communication across the departments. Co-ordination is the essence of management. Effective information systems, like computers and networking facilitate free flow of information and facilitate coordination throughout the organisation. To address this, we are investing more deliberately in strengthening in-country leadership, management and coordination (LMC) in the 2016–2020 strategy period. Task Forces 14. And when sub-division of work is not possible then co-ordination becomes compulsory. This model occurs when one unit in the overall process produces an output necessary for the performance by the next unit. Committee members freely discuss problems of their respective departments and arrive at mutually acceptable solutions to problems. It is essential for the survival of an organisation. Executives are pre-occupied with the work of their own departments, therefore they are reluctant to become involved in the activities of other departments. 11 Examples of Quality Requirements. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. (iii) Superior may solicit views and cooperation of staff members in the solution of problems. “Committees are usually formal organised groups with a designated membership and chairperson and regularly scheduled meetings.” Committees are formed to solve specific organisational problems like leave committee. The human as well as non-human resources are utilised in a right manner. Well defined plans and goals help to achieve coordination by ensuring that efforts of all individuals and departments are directed towards organisational goals. All these situations make co-ordination more difficult. Without proper co-ordination the organisational objectives cannot be achieved. Provisions of check and inspection – There should be provisions of check and inspection to know what is happening in the organisation. It is an orderly management of group effort to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose. It is an arrangement of group effort to achieve organizational goals without much wastage of time, effort, and money. — Haimann, The techniques of coordination in management are as follows:-, 1. Management can achieve better coordination through effective leadership and supervision. This helps in avoiding interper­sonal conflicts. Similar functions are put under the charge of one executive to facilitate better coordination. It defines the activities of the enterprise in terms of individual tasks and the activities that are grouped into homogenous work units and authority positions. Content Filtration 6. GAVI’S APPROACH. Balancing and  a Few Others. The findings of the case study demonstrate the importance of communication and coordination in successful project management for complex projects. Once the problem facing the interdependent departments has been satisfactorily solved, the task force may be wound up. This liaison officer would do the work of establishing and maintaining co-ordination among important departments. This will ensure that activi­ties of different departments support and reinforce each other. These “soft” skills are essential to leadership, team-building, and the creation and maintenance of strong, effective professional relationships. Effective supervision is necessary to guide the activities of individuals in the proper direction. In short, it can be said that coordination is related to group effort and not individual effort. She believes that coordination can be easily obtained by direct interpersonal relationships and direct personal communications. 3. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Management functions, therefore cannot remain in isolation. Co-ordination is undertaken at every level of management. 2. In order to obtain co-ordination while organising, the manager must look at it, both vertically and horizontally. However, if other departments are modified in such a fashion, that it affects the particular department favourably, then self-coordination is said to be achieved. According to Fayol, where activities are well-co­ordinated, each department works in harmony with the rest. It may be difficult to communicate the policies, orders, and managerial actions on a face-to-face basis. Overall and effective co-ordination results into the following benefits to the organisation in general: (c) It helps in economising the activities and inter-related economy; (e) It reduces the cost of distribution and marketing; (f) It results into increased profitability. It also brings harmony in carrying out the different tasks and activities to achieve the organization’s objectives efficiently. The management can arrange the departments in such a way so as to get better coordination among the departmental heads. We present a review of recent literature on coordination in organizations arranged according to the mechanisms that help achieve it. They pursue their own special interests at the cost of organizational goals. Co-ordination is the essence of managership. The individuals in the organ­ization must be willing to help each other voluntarily. Almost all managerial functions directly affect co-ordination, for example planning, organisation, departmentation, supervision, leadership and control. Acceptance of mutually derived solution is the sign of coordination. It may be necessary to promote day-to-day communication among plants, so as to identify trouble spots and prevent interdepartmental conflicts. Therefore, ideas, views, opinions, recommendations, etc., are to be conveyed to the receivers through personal contact for ensuring better coordination. Disclaimer This is very much essential for achieving co-ordination. We conjecture that the existence of coordination risk may contribute to bullwhip behavior. According to Thompson, there are three major forms  of interdependence; pooled, sequential and reciprocal. These two forms of coordination are described below. In order to harmonize the activities of the organization, it is indispensable to see that everybody in the business understands the main objectives of the business and works towards their achievement in active cooperation with others. This looks into cases of absenteeism and transfer of workers and achieves coordination by keeping the organisational work force satisfied at their jobs. Establishment of an effective communication system is the key to proper coor­dination. In this review we begin by discussing the origins of interest in coordination, tracing some of the classic perspectives. Balancing means adequate provision of any one thing to support or counterbalance the other. Report a Violation 11. Co-ordination, as a tool of control technique, monitors the tasks and operations without the knowledge of employees. In such a case, a temporary task force consisting of representatives from each interdependent department may be set up to look after the coordination function. 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