In most cases, however, especially for the doctorate, the candidate is required to submit a research plan and one faculty member must agree to serve as his/her supervisor before the candidate can be admitted into the program; The exception are the Natural Sciences post-graduate programs, that accepts students with very broad and/or vague research prospects with sometimes the prospect is given in promptu during the interview, preferring to let the students define their study program and advisor in the course of the first year of studies. Since the implementation of the Bologna Process in France, things are going towards a simplification: schools continue to deliver their own diplomas, but the State recognition and degree awarding is far more ranged than before. In the United States, since the late 19th century, the threefold degree system of bachelor, master and doctor has been in place, but has evolved into a slightly different pattern from the European equivalent. University College North Staffordshire was also granted degree awarding powers on its foundation in 1949, despite not becoming a university (as the University of Keele) until 1962. The earliest doctoral degrees (theology – Divinitatis Doctor (D.D. For some studies[74][75] in the Netherlands, a governmental determined limited access is in place (although under political review for abolishment, February 2011). The reform of higher education in Norway, Kvalitetsreformen ("The Quality Reform"), was passed in the Norwegian Parliament, the Storting, in 2001 and carried out during the 2003/2004 academic year. In 2011, Italy introduced a qualifications framework, known as the Quadro dei Titoli Italiani (QTI), tied to the three cycles of the Bologna Process. [140] Another referencing exercise, comparing the NZQF to the 10-level Irish National Framework for Qualifications found that degrees were comparable but that further work was needed to improve compatibility for the sub-degree levels (1 – 6). The exact requirements for satisfying a Habilitation depend on individual universities. Professional doctorates still require research leading to "a significant and original contribution to knowledge in the context of professional practice" and should not be confused with extended master's degrees that bear similar names for historical reasons: the Juris Doctor and Doctors of Medical Practice, Physiotherapy, Dentistry and Optometry. These programs are particularly interesting because they allow students to enter professional university programs, such as physiotherapy (which consists of an integrated Bachelor of Science in Physiotherapy and Master of Physical Therapy), without having to meet the usual grade and course prerequisites required from students holding a pre-university science diploma. 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